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Shell script that triggers the update. Mentions a number of cars in the Subaru lineup then a codename for some sort of new Subaru North American vehicle. At first, I thought the only signature checking on the update was a md5 sum we could modify in the update folder. On the plus side, this should cut down on "I flashed a random binary to my head unit and it won't turn on" support e-mails. Jtag would involve spending more money, and part-time embedded security research isn't exactly the most lucrative career choice. Almost every command line binary on the system has handy help descriptions we can get via strings: C softwareUpdate Usage To Start Service installUpdate -c language files -l language id -i ioc channel name (.g. Json, creating a file is optional you can generate your json payload dynamically or type jsonformatted configuration on the curl command line but its an easy way to get started with a large amount of preset data. D e 67 20 4f.Missing OS Ima 000000a e 76 61 6c valid).) 000000b d 75 6c 74 69 2d a.Multi-v.: 0x9010eb04 is the tag for a QNX6 filesystem. If anyone affiliated with education or some other useful endeavor would like the head unit, I'll be happy to ship it assuming you pay the shipping costs and agree to never install this in a vehicle. We upload the data from the file into the nginx Unit configuration: curl -X PUT -data-binary -unix-socket /run/ck We add a temporary listener to access it: curl -X PUT -data-binary application python3-app -unix-socket /run/ck The python3-app is now active and listening.
Manually calculating the second superblock address via following the source code gets us this: /Blocksize is 1024 (0x400) /num_blocks 0xfffe0 /bootblock offset #define QNX6_bootblock_size 0x2000 #define QNX6_superblock_area 0x1000 calculate second superblock blocknumber offset fs32_to_cpu(sbi, sb1- sb_num_blocks) (bootblock_offset s- s_blocksize_bits) (QNX6_superblock_area. Strings cndfs C - condense / restore Power-Safe (QNX6) file-systems C -c (general-option condense-option). Starts "asix adapter driver" then loads a dhcp client. Before each print, a constant binary options app 8100 is added to the DAT file content pointer then the value is dereferenced. 00000ea0 97 84 6f 26 5c 8b 03 c2 bf.o.i4. This doesn't look like it needs to be included with the update package. I believe dealer and factory can be triggered with known button combinations. Thus, signature is offset 0 (the qnxcndfs string, not a digital signature one might first suspect version is offset 8, filesystem type is offset 0xA, etc. Root root Password: Login incorrect Serial has a username and password. The technical manuals you can pay for most likely have this information as well as the head unit pinout. If this was Android, we could most likely find plenty of pre-existing PoCs and gain root rather trivially as most vehicle manufacturers never seem to update Android. Miniifs seems to contain most of the files used during the software update process. Unfortunately, after plugging in the symmetric key and trying the above process in python, nothing seemed to decrypt correctly.
It appears binary options app 8100 that Subarunet did not require any form of authentication to download files originally. Interrupt Attached irqLine 42 with. Do it enough and patterns will emerge. To solve this, understanding the QNX6 superblock structure is helpful. There are an infinite number of ways to gain (network) code execution by replacing binaries, but I'll stick with what I thought of first.
Using this subroutine, we can recover around 70-80 of the header data for the encrypted file with virtually no effort. Harman and Subaru should not assume that the biggest flaw is releasing update files. At this point, it became clear to me that the extents section binary options app 8100 is just used to "compress" large runs of zeros. Final Decompression With this, we know enough to completely decompress the encrypted and compressed qnxcndfs files and successfully mount them through the Linux QNX6 driver. The cdqnx6fs binary is quite compact and doesn't contain many debugging strings.
Y - Clearly a symmetric key. 00000e90 0e 0f 86 ac 0a e5 9c 25 ce 6d 09 ee 9c 58.m.X9. Decondense an official software update qnxcndfs image. Emulation Harman's algorithm looks rather simple as the function generating the new key doesn't call into any subroutines, doesn't use any system calls, and is only 120 lines binary options app 8100 of ARM. Passwd: root:x:0:0:Superuser bin/sh daemon:1:2:daemon dm:2:8:dwnmgr ubtsvc:x:3:9:bt service logger:x:101:71:Subaru Logger home/logger bin/sh certifier:x:102:71:Subaru shadow - Password hashes for root and other accounts.
Eb d8 6f.C.o. The table of clusters looks like this: e. They had linked to it from the technical service manuals you can purchase access to through Subaru. At this point we've extracted a large number of relevant files from the update package. We have already configured our applications in nginx Unit by creating the following.json files, one for each of our applications, to specify the required parameters for application objects written in that language. I am unsure how to get into engineering mode or what it even contains. Dat (using the -r flag mount the extracted QNX6 image in a system that supports read/write operations, modify the image in some way, flash it back down, and see if it works. The header also contains an offset to a table of clusters. Thus, glob every binary we've extracted thus far into a folder on a flash drive, insert it into the head unit USB adapter, connect to dm or daemon via serial, set your path to include the aforementioned folder, and then type. Print this help Condense-options: -b size specify the raw block size for compression bytes (default: 64k) -c condense file-system src into file dst -d num specify the data hashing method.
Aside from this, there really isn't much information out there. They have no password defined, and no initial command specified, which implies /bin/sh will be the command. If we assume the first doubleword is a pointer in the existing file and navigate to offset 0x0E90, we get: 00000e50 80.B._. Be sure to check out the first video in our tutorial series, What Is nginx Unit? It is running QNX.60. As the dat files look encrypted, starting with the ISO file makes the most sense. If we go down a bit in the function, we get to more interesting header fields with sizes. 2 hours of googling has yielded nothing. The idea is to take the Harman transformation code and run it exactly. Extract the image, mount the image, add a test file in a known directory, unmount the image, transfer it back to the Harman head unit, repackage it using the correct encryption key, replace the file into the update package, flash it down, pray.
Root s password: Dead end. This is pretty standard for embedded systems. The eMMC is a notable attack vector. In production environments that require 100 uptime, updating an application is a threestep process: Create the new application and a temporary listener Reassign the production listener object to the new application Delete unused configuration objects Step 1: Create the New. Valid update images were initially challenging to find, but it appears that Subaru is now releasing these via a map-update application that can be used if you have a valid VIN. Ifs Contents binary options app 8100 There are other IFS files included in the ISO. 0xe90 is the end of the cluster table (note the change in entropy). I had to modify a few registers to get this to work. Reverse Engineering qnxcndfs As code execution via ISO modification is unfortunately (fortunately?) not trivial, the next step is to decrypt the condensed dat file. Debugging the kernel module indicates that the first superblock is correct and validating, while the second is missing or invalid. If we can root the base device, we can potentially root every head unit on every vehicle sharing the same platform.
The install succeeds and we can find the new file via serial. A short while after, this value is passed to the cdqnx6fs process. The Linux kernel can be built to mount QNX6 filesystem as read-only thanks to the work of Kai Bankett. This corresponds to this word in our header: c0 ff 3f c 1d 5e? Inject some form of backdoor sshd in this case. The interesting find are the new ifs files at the bottom.
Key Generation Back before every app was built with Electron and used around three gigs of RAM to send a tweet, software authors would distribute demos and shareware, which was software that usually had the complete functionality unlocked for a brief time-trial. W R2, R3, R3 load:0804AA9E 4D F2 38 10 MOV R0, #aSignature0x08l ; " Signature: 0x08llxn" load:0804AAA6 FF F7 3A E9 BLX printf load:0804aaaa BB 68 LDR R3, R7 0x18var_10 load:0804aaac 1B 89 ldrh R3, R3 8 load:0804aaae. Cluster Decryption With the new key, the aforementioned guessed decryption scheme works. If you prefer to access the API through an binary options app 8100 IP address:port pair, specify it with the the -control option when you initialize the unitd binary. Reverse engineering qnxcndfs wasn't required, but was an interesting avenue to explore and may help other researchers in the future. An application object describes an application as a collection of parameters: some general ones that apply to all application languages and some that are languagespecific. Re-package the update file via cndfs. If you have questions, please contact either Subaru or Harman directly. Without the official update, the ISO signature check will fail and the install will not continue to the stage where the qnxcndfs files are written. We'll have to use an official QNX 6 test VM for full QNX6 filesystem. We encourage you to check your configuration frequently, especially during active modifications and updates. A higher trim model has an 8-inch screen, and the top of the line model has the 8-inch screen as well as an embedded GPS mapping system.
C0 ff 3f c 1d 5e? Since we don't know what FS type actually means or corresponds to, these aren't the best fields to verify. but paying to have the dealer replace the unit would be very expensive. The function the symmetric key gets loaded in is called calcNewSymmKey, and another debug message prints "Decrypting.". There's a hash for the metadata, a hash for an "extents" and "cluster" table, and finally a hash for the actual encrypted data. 0 drwxrwxrwx 1 work work.0K Jun 7 2017. 0:0 :0:0 :0:0 Three passwords I failed to crack. W R2, R3, R3 0x20 load:0804AB62 4D F2 60 20 MOV R0, #aRawDataBytesLl ; " Raw data bytes: llu bytesn" load:0804AB6A FF F7 D8 E8 BLX printf Condensed size is a double-word (64-bit value) loaded at offset 0x18.
I don't recommend doing that, but it worked this time. From the LZO documentation : My experiments have shown that LZO1B is good with a large blocksize or binary options app 8100 with very redundant data, LZO1F is good with a small blocksize or with binary data and that LZO1X is often the best choice of all. We don't yet know what is contained in the encrypted dat files. num must be in the range.7 (default: 4). RAM Er f 7e. Hence, installUpdate is almost certainly the file we want to reverse engineer to understand the update process. This should cause io-blk to discard cached blocks on direct I/O, which may reduce performance. I didn't feel like paying the 30 for access to the technical manual, so I searched auction sites for a while, eventually found a picture of the wiring harness, noted that the harness had one wire that was much.
Pop r4-r7, pc The C shim: #include stdio. To" his post: SSH Into starlink. To learn more, see the nginx Unit documentation. Barring a mistake in the signature verification subroutines, we will be unable to modify the ISO for trivial code execution. Analysis of Attack Surfaces Where do we begin?
InstallUpdate Flow First, find any references to the binary options app 8100 cdqnx6fs or cndfs files in installUpdate. Dat Here's a small sample of the files and directories inside of system. Dat are high entropy files with no strings. It appears to be a simple rotation cipher. Restore-options: -r restore file-system dst from condensed file src -V verify written data during restoration Where: src is the source file / block device dst is the destination file / block device Hash methods:. Concatenating the result of this gives us a binary blob that looks quite like a QNX6 filesystem. Cdqnx6fs Start by looking at the cdqnx6fs strings. Attackers need a reliable way to gain access to the system to explore it for other vulnerabilities. Plenty of embedded systems trigger functionality and debug settings when specific files are loaded onto USB drives and inserted, so we can hope for that here. For each application, we add the contents of the file to the nginx Unit configuration object with an API call in the following format. The post nginx Unit: Updating Apps with 100 Uptime appeared first on nginx. If it finds files that indicate an update, it will claim that it is verifying the integrity of the files (although it actually doesn't do this until reboot, strange! See all the options here.
Cluster Data Chunks of cluster data can now be extracted from the data segment using the cluster table. Load:0805DE2C aAssertionFaile_2 DCB "Assertion failed in [email protected]:offset xtnt- clstr0_off 0 So, one field may be a cluster position, the other may be some form of cluster offset. This image is presented in an image filesystem (IFS). Thus, we potentially guessed incorrectly on the structure of the encrypted clusters, the algorithm isn't actually AES-GCM (or it was modified or something else is going. Understanding the Extents There's a well written write-up of the QNX6 filesystem structure done by the same individual that implemented the driver in the Linux kernel.